From SARS to COVID-19: lessons we should have learned (but we did not)

Authors

  • Luciano Rodrigo Lopes Universidade Federal de São Paulo
  • João Henrique Campos
  • Alison Felipe Alencar Chaves

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17267/2675-021Xevidence.2021.e3837

Keywords:

Coronavirus. SARS. COVID-19. Pandemic. Brazil. Public Health.

Abstract

In 2002, a severe acute respiratory (SARS) epidemic, caused by a coronavirus (SARS-CoV), affected a significant number of countries and was interrupted after one year, approximately. Currently, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been a concern for the whole world, and the end of the pandemic does not appear near. In this article, we briefly discussed the lessons learned by the countries which fought the SARS epidemic and which had succeeded in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. We also discussed some of the main points that resulted in failures to handle the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In the Brazilian context, we observed that the federal government delayed the necessary measures to be taken, has been less transparent to disclose health data, neglected the facemask usage mandates and refused the COVID-19 vaccine offerings. Despite the previous coronavirus outbreaks, we are suffering during the COVID-19 pandemic because we did not learn with SARS.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

  • Luciano Rodrigo Lopes, Universidade Federal de São Paulo
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0284-2821

References

Xu R-H, He J-F, Evans MR, Peng G-W, Field HE, Yu D-W, et al. Epidemiologic clues to SARS origin in China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(6):1030–7. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1006.030852

Kumar M, Taki K, Gahlot R, Sharma A, Dhangar K. A chronicle of SARS-CoV-2: Part-I - Epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, transmission and treatment. Sci Total Environ. 2020;734:139278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139278

Drosten C, Günther S, Preiser W, van der Werf S, Brodt H-R, Becker S, et al. Identification of a novel coronavirus in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(20):1967–76. https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa030747

Peiris JSM, Lai ST, Poon LLM, Guan Y, Yam LYC, Lim W, et al. Coronavirus as a possible cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Lancet Lond Engl. 2003;361(9366):1319–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(03)13077-2

Xu D, Zhang Z, Jin L, Chu F, Mao Y, Wang H, et al. Persistent shedding of viable SARS-CoV in urine and stool of SARS patients during the convalescent phase. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis Off Publ Eur Soc Clin Microbiol. 2005;24(3):165–71. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10096-005-1299-5

Feng D, De Vlas SJ, Fang L-Q, Han X-N, Zhao W-J, Sheng S, et al. The SARS epidemic in mainland China: bringing together all epidemiological data. Trop Med Int Health TM IH. 2009;14(Suppl 1):4–13. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2008.02145.x

Tsang T, Lam T. SARS: public health measures in Hong Kong. Respirology. 2003;8(s1):S46–8. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1843.2003.00524.x

Hung LS. The SARS epidemic in Hong Kong: what lessons have we learned? J R Soc Med. 2003 Aug;96(8):374–8. Cited: PMID: PMID: 12893851

Leung GM, Hedley AJ, Ho L-M, Chau P, Wong IOL, Thach TQ, et al. The epidemiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome in the 2003 Hong Kong epidemic: an analysis of all 1755 patients. Ann Intern Med. 2004;141(9):662–73. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-141-9-200411020-00006

Guan Y, Zheng BJ, He YQ, Liu XL, Zhuang ZX, Cheung CL, et al. Isolation and characterization of viruses related to the SARS coronavirus from animals in southern China. Science. 2003;302(5643):276–8. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1087139

Lau SKP, Woo PCY, Li KSM, Huang Y, Tsoi H-W, Wong BHL, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-like virus in Chinese horseshoe bats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102(39):14040–5. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0506735102

Silverman M, Clarke M, Stranges S. Did Lessons From SARS Help Canada’s Response to COVID-19? Am J Public Health. 2020;110(12):1797–9. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2020.305936

Van Nguyen Q, Cao DA, Nghiem SH. Spread of COVID-19 and policy responses in Vietnam: An overview. Int J Infect Dis IJID Off Publ Int Soc Infect Dis. 2021;103:157–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.11.154

Ha BTT, Ngoc Quang L, Mirzoev T, Tai NT, Thai PQ, Dinh PC. Combating the COVID-19 Epidemic: Experiences from Vietnam. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(9). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093125

Gostin LO. The Coronavirus Pandemic 1 Year On-What Went Wrong? JAMA. 2021;325(12):1132–3. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.3207

Gostin LO, Koh HH, Williams M, Hamburg MA, Benjamin G, Foege WH, et al. US withdrawal from WHO is unlawful and threatens global and US health and security. Lancet Lond Engl. 2020;396(10247):293–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(20)31527-0

Howard J. WHO stands by recommendation to not wear masks if you are not sick or not caring for someone who is sick [Internet]. CNN. [cited 2021 May 12]. Available from: https://www.cnn.com/2020/03/30/world/coronavirus-who-masks-recommendation-trnd/index.html

WHO. Advice on the use of masks in the community, during home care and in healthcare settings in the context of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2021 May 12]. Available from: https://www.who.int/publications-detail-redirect/advice-on-the-use-of-masks-in-the-community-during-home-care-and-in-healthcare-settings-in-the-context-of-the-novel-coronavirus-(2019-ncov)-outbreak

Cheng VC-C, Wong S-C, Chuang VW-M, So SY-C, Chen JH-K, Sridhar S, et al. The role of community-wide wearing of face mask for control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic due to SARS-CoV-2. J Infect. 2020;81(1):107–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.04.024

Stutt ROJH, Retkute R, Bradley M, Gilligan CA, Colvin J. A modelling framework to assess the likely effectiveness of facemasks in combination with “lock-down” in managing the COVID-19 pandemic. Proc Math Phys Eng Sci. 2020;476(2238):20200376. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.2020.0376

Delamater PL, Street EJ, Leslie TF, Yang YT, Jacobsen KH. Complexity of the Basic Reproduction Number (R0). Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(1):1–4. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2501.171901

Bauch CT. Estimating the COVID-19 R number: a bargain with the devil? Lancet Infect Dis. 2021;21(2):151–3. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1473-3099(20)30840-9

Souza WM, Buss LF, Candido DS, Carrera J-P, Li S, Zarebski AE, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the COVID-19 epidemic in Brazil. Nat Hum Behav. 2020;4(8):856–65. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-020-0928-4

Ponce D. The impact of coronavirus in Brazil: politics and the pandemic. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2020;16(9):483. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41581-020-0327-0

Simões E, Paraguassu L. Brazil business elite blast Bolsonaro, who remains unconvinced on COVID-19 restrictions. Reuters [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2021 May 12]; Available from: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-brazil-idUSKBN2BE1ND

Krüger A. Em dia de recorde de mortes, Bolsonaro questiona o uso de máscaras [Internet]. Congresso em Foco. 2021 [cited 2021 Jul 22]. Available from: https://congressoemfoco.uol.com.br/governo/em-dia-de-recorde-de-mortes-bolsonaro-questiona-o-uso-de-mascaras/

Discurso do Presidente da República, Jair Bolsonaro, na Cerimônia de Entrega de Títulos de Propriedade Rural no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul — Português (Brasil) [Internet]. Presidência da Republica. 2021 [cited 2021 Jul 19]. Available from: https://www.gov.br/planalto/pt-br/acompanhe-o-planalto/discursos/2021/discurso-do-presidente-da-republica-jair-bolsonaro-na-cerimonia-de-entrega-de-titulos-de-propriedade-rural-no-estado-do-mato-grosso-do-sul

Supremo Tribunal Federal. STF reconhece competência concorrente de estados, DF, municípios e União no combate à Covid-19 [Internet]. Supremo Tribunal Federal. [cited 2021 May 12]. Available from: http://portal.stf.jus.br/noticias/verNoticiaDetalhe.asp?idConteudo=441447&ori=1

Dong E, Du H, Gardner L. An interactive web-based dashboard to track COVID-19 in real time. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;20(5):533–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1473-3099(20)30120-1

Fraser C, Riley S, Anderson RM, Ferguson NM. Factors that make an infectious disease outbreak controllable. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101(16):6146–51. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0307506101

Markel H, Lipman HB, Navarro JA, Sloan A, Michalsen JR, Stern AM, et al. Nonpharmaceutical interventions implemented by US cities during the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic. JAMA. 2007;298(6):644–54. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.298.6.644

Liang M, Gao L, Cheng C, Zhou Q, Uy JP, Heiner K, et al. Efficacy of face mask in preventing respiratory virus transmission: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020;36:101751. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101751

Lai S, Ruktanonchai NW, Zhou L, Prosper O, Luo W, Floyd JR, et al. Effect of non-pharmaceutical interventions to contain COVID-19 in China. Nature. 2020;585(7825):410–3. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2293-x

Flaxman S, Mishra S, Gandy A, Unwin HJT, Mellan TA, Coupland H, et al. Estimating the effects of non-pharmaceutical interventions on COVID-19 in Europe. Nature. 2020;584(7820):257–61. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2405-7

Huang QS, Wood T, Jelley L, Jennings T, Jefferies S, Daniells K, et al. Impact of the COVID-19 nonpharmaceutical interventions on influenza and other respiratory viral infections in New Zealand. Nat Commun. 2021;12(1):1001. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21157-9

Huh K, Jung J, Hong J, Kim M, Ahn JG, Kim J-H, et al. Impact of Nonpharmaceutical Interventions on the Incidence of Respiratory Infections During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in Korea: A Nationwide Surveillance Study. Clin Infect Dis Off Publ Infect Dis Soc Am. 2021;72(7):e184–91. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1682

Cowling BJ, Ali ST, Ng TWY, Tsang TK, Li JCM, Fong MW, et al. Impact assessment of non-pharmaceutical interventions against coronavirus disease 2019 and influenza in Hong Kong: an observational study. Lancet Public Health. 2020;5(5):e279–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2468-2667(20)30090-6

Brasil. Governo Federal cria Comitê de Combate à COVID-19 [Internet]. Secretaria de Governo. 2021 [cited 2021 May 12]. Available from: https://www.gov.br/secretariadegoverno/pt-br/assuntos/noticias/ultimas-noticias-1/governo-federal-e-congresso-nacional-criam-comite-de-combate-a-covid-19

Brasil. Coronavírus: Ministério da Saúde lança campanha de prevenção [Internet]. Governo do Brasil. 2021 [cited 2021 May 12]. Available from: https://www.gov.br/pt-br/noticias/saude-e-vigilancia-sanitaria/2020/03/coronavirus-ministerio-da-saude-lanca-campanha-de-prevencao

Justiça Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Justiça Federal determina que União apresente Plano Nacional de Comunicação para enfrentar pandemia [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2021 May 12]. Available from: https://www2.jfrs.jus.br/noticias/justica-federal-determina-que-uniao-apresente-plano-nacional-de-comunicacao-para-enfrentar-pandemia/

Brasil. Derrubado veto de Bolsonaro ao uso obrigatório de máscara na pandemia [Internet]. Senado Federal. [cited 2021 Jul 22]. Available from: https://www12.senado.leg.br/noticias/materias/2020/08/19/derrubado-veto-de-bolsonaro-ao-uso-obrigatorio-de-mascara-na-pandemia

Habib H. Has Sweden’s controversial covid-19 strategy been successful? BMJ. 20202;369:m2376. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m3255

Aschwanden C. The false promise of herd immunity for COVID-19. Nature. 2020;587(7832):26–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-02948-4

Claeson M, Hanson S. COVID-19 and the Swedish enigma. Lancet Lond Engl. 2021;397(10271):259–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(20)32750-1

Signorelli C, Zucchi A, Tersalvi CA, Ciampichini R, Beato E, Balzarini F, et al. High seroprevalence of SARS_COV-2 in Bergamo: evidence for herd immunity or reason to be cautious? Int J Public Health. 2020;65(9):1815–7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-020-01524-x

Buss LF, Prete CA, Abrahim CM, Mendrone A, Salomon T, Almeida-Neto C, et al. COVID-19 herd immunity in the Brazilian Amazon. medRxiv. 2020 S;2020.09.16.20194787. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.16.20194787

Faria NR, Mellan TA, Whittaker C, Claro IM, Candido DS, Mishra S, et al. Genomics and epidemiology of the P.1 SARS-CoV-2 lineage in Manaus, Brazil. Science. 2021;372(6544):815-21. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abh2644

Naveca F, Nascimento V, Souza V, Corado A, Nascimento F, Silva G, et al. COVID-19 epidemic in the Brazilian state of Amazonas was driven by long-term persistence of endemic SARS-CoV-2 lineages and the recent emergence of the new Variant of Concern P.1 [Internet]. In Review; 2021 Feb [cited 2021 May 12]. Available from: https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-275494/v1

Melo GC, Duprat IP, Araújo KCGM, Fischer FM, Araújo Neto RA. Prediction of cumulative rate of COVID-19 deaths in Brazil: a modeling study. Rev Bras Epidemiol Braz J Epidemiol. 2020;23:e200081. https://doi.org/10.1590/1980-549720200081

Carvalho TA, Boschiero MN, Marson FAL. COVID-19 in Brazil: 150,000 deaths and the Brazilian underreporting. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2021;99(3):115258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2020.115258

Orellana JDY, Cunha GM, Marrero L, Moreira RI, Leite IC, Horta BL. Excess deaths during the COVID-19 pandemic: underreporting and regional inequalities in Brazil. Cad Saúde Pública. 2021;37:e00259120. https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-311X00259120

CDC - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Excess Deaths Associated with COVID-19 [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2021 Jul 21]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vsrr/covid19/excess_deaths.htm

Luizeti BO, Perli VAS, Costa GG, Eckert IC, Roma AM, Costa KM. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on surgical procedures in Brazil: a descriptive study. medRxiv. 2021;2021.03.17.21253801. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.03.17.21253801

Palamim CVC, Marson FAL. COVID-19 - The Availability of ICU Beds in Brazil during the Onset of Pandemic. Ann Glob Health. 2020;86(1):100. https://dx.doi.org/10.5334%2Faogh.3025

WHO. Monitoring and evaluation framework [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2021 May 12]. Available from: https://www.who.int/publications-detail-redirect/monitoring-and-evaluation-framework

WHO. Estimating mortality from COVID-19: Scientific brief, 4 August 2020 [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2021 May 12]. Available from: https://www.who.int/publications-detail-redirect/WHO-2019-nCoV-Sci-Brief-Mortality-2020.1

TotalAnalysis [Internet]. [cited 2021 Jul 19]. Available from: https://www.totalanalysis.com/Covid19/TAIndex

The Lancet Digital Health. Transparency during global health emergencies. Lancet Digit Health. 2020;2(9):e441. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2FS2589-7500(20)30198-9

Gardner L, Ratcliff J, Dong E, Katz A. A need for open public data standards and sharing in light of COVID-19. Lancet Infect Dis. 2021;21(4):e80. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1473-3099(20)30635-6

The Lancet. COVID-19 in Brazil: “So what?” Lancet Lond Engl. 2020;395(10235):1461. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(20)31095-3

Crane MA, Shermock KM, Omer SB, Romley JA. Change in Reported Adherence to Nonpharmaceutical Interventions During the COVID-19 Pandemic, April-November 2020. JAMA. 2021;325(9):883–5. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33480971/

Green J, Edgerton J, Naftel D, Shoub K, Cranmer SJ. Elusive consensus: Polarization in elite communication on the COVID-19 pandemic. Sci Adv. 2020;6(28):eabc2717. https://dx.doi.org/10.1126%2Fsciadv.abc2717

Bekalu MA, Dhawan D, McCloud R, Pinnamaneni R, Viswanath K. Adherence to COVID-19 mitigation measures among American adults: the need for consistent and unified messaging. Health Educ Res. 2021;36(2):178-91. https://dx.doi.org/10.1093%2Fher%2Fcyab002

Villarinho MV, Padilha MI, Berardinelli LMM, Borenstein MS, Meirelles BHS, Andrade SR de. Public health policies facing the epidemic of AIDS and the assistance for people with the disease. Rev Bras Enferm. 2013;66(2):271–7. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23743849/

Okie S. Fighting HIV — Lessons from Brazil. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(19):1977–81. https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmp068069

Lowe R, Barcellos C, Brasil P, Cruz OG, Honório NA, Kuper H, et al. The Zika Virus Epidemic in Brazil: From Discovery to Future Implications. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(1):96. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29315224/

Domingues CMAS, Maranhão AGK, Teixeira AM, Fantinato FFS, Domingues RAS. The Brazilian National Immunization Program: 46 years of achievements and challenges. Cad Saude Publica. 2020;36 (Suppl 2):e00222919. https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-311X00222919

Junqueira C. Em carta, CEO mundial da Pfizer pediu a Bolsonaro pressa na compra de vacinas [Internet]. CNN Brasil. 2021 [cited 2021 May 12]. Available from: https://www.cnnbrasil.com.br/nacional/2021/01/22/em-carta-ceo-mundial-da-pfizer-pediu-a-bolsonaro-pressa-na-compra-de-vacinas

Ritchie H, Ortiz-Ospina E, Beltekian D, Mathieu E, Hasell J, Macdonald B, et al. Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19). Our World Data [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2021 Jul 19]; Available from: https://ourworldindata.org/covid-vaccinations

Altmann DM, Boyton RJ, Beale R. Immunity to SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Science. 2021;371(6534):1103–4. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abg7404

Frampton D, Rampling T, Cross A, Bailey H, Heaney J, Byott M, et al. Genomic characteristics and clinical effect of the emergent SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 lineage in London, UK: a whole-genome sequencing and hospital-based cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2021;21(9):1246-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(21)00170-5

Boni MF, Lemey P, Jiang X, Lam TT-Y, Perry BW, Castoe TA, et al. Evolutionary origins of the SARS-CoV-2 sarbecovirus lineage responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Nat Microbiol. 2020;5(11):1408–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-020-0771-4

Li X, Giorgi EE, Marichannegowda MH, Foley B, Xiao C, Kong X-P, et al. Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 through recombination and strong purifying selection. Sci Adv. 2020;6(27). https://dx.doi.org/10.1101%2F2020.03.20.000885

Shahhosseini N, Wong G, Kobinger GP, Chinikar S. SARS-CoV-2 spillover transmission due to recombination event. Gene Rep. 2021;23:101045. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.genrep.2021.101045

Ventura D, Reis R. An unprecedented attack on human rights in Brazil: the timeline of the federal government’s strategy to spread Covid-19. Offprint. Translation by Luis Misiara, revision by Jameson Martins. Bulletin Rights in the Pandemic n. 10, São Paulo, Brazil, CEPEDISA/USP and Conectas Human Rights [Internet]. Conectas. 2021 [cited 2021 Jul 22]. Available from: https://www.conectas.org/publicacao/boletim-direitos-na-pandemia-no-10/

Downloads

Published

01/06/2022

Issue

Section

Bridging the gap

How to Cite

1.
Lopes LR, Campos JH, Chaves AFA. From SARS to COVID-19: lessons we should have learned (but we did not). Evidence [Internet]. 2022 Jan. 6 [cited 2024 May 23];3:e3837. Available from: https://journals.bahiana.edu.br/index.php/evidence/article/view/3837