Brain Imaging and neurostimulation in health and disorders: status report




Neuromodulation, Brain Stimulation, Brain Image, Neuroimage, Neuroscience


INTRODUCTION: Despite being considered least important for clinical practice in the pyramid of evidence for recommendations, sometimes scientists' expert opinions could help to better understand the summarization of updated publications. OBJECTIVE: To provide a major summarized update about brain imaging and stimulation of the nervous system in health and disease. METHODS: Comprehensive review developed by experts in each subarea of knowledge in neuroimaging and non-invasive stimulation of the nervous system. A team of researchers and clinic experts was invited to present an update on their area of expertise. RESULTS: In basics on brain imaging techniques, we approach general and quantitative electroencephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, functional near-infrared spectroscopy, and experimental paradigms in brain imaging studies. Were included associations between transcranial magnetic stimulation and electromyography, electroencephalography, and functional near-infrared stimulation to evaluate brain activity. Furthermore, we showed several actualized central and peripheral neuromodulation techniques. And finally, we presented different clinical and performance uses of non-invasive neuromodulation. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is a major summarized and concentrated update about brain imaging and stimulation that can benefit neuroscience researchers and clinicians from different levels of experience.

Author Biography

  • Katia Nunes Sá, Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública (Salvador). Bahia, Brazil. ORCID - 0000-0002-0255-4379


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How to Cite

Baptista AF, Casali AG, Oda AL, Okano AH, Moreira A, Santos ALY da S, et al. Brain Imaging and neurostimulation in health and disorders: status report. Brain Imaging and Stimul. [Internet]. 2023 Sep. 13 [cited 2024 Jun. 23];2:e5167. Available from:

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